1209

The first Franciscans in Florence

The first followers of Saint Francis arrive in Florence; at the beginning they were welcomed with suspicion but they soon assume a primary role as councillors, ambassadors, confessors of princes and powerful people.

1211

The arrival of Saint Francis in Florence

Saint Francis and Friar Sylvester arrived in Florence, stopping over, according to the tradition, the Hospice of Santa Lucia dei Magnoli. Nearby, in a little island created by Arno River, there was a chapel dedicated to the Holy Cross which would be donated to Saint Francis and from which the present church and friary would take the name.

1228

The birth of Santa Croce

The history of Santa Croce 'officially' starts on September 14th, 1228 when Pope Gregory IX, with a Bull sent from Perugia, takes under his protection the Conventual Franciscans who used to celebrate mass in Santa Croce church in Florence.

1246

The Library of Santa Croce

Father Guido della Fassa, the Guardian for the Franciscan Community in Santa Croce, purchases the Decretum Gratiani a fundamental book for the scholars, at disposal of the Florentine friars. This is the first step towards the creation of one of the first libraries in Florence.

1294

The new church

The new circle of city walls in Florence includes the whole district of Santa Croce. It is decided to build a new church (the one still existing) of monumental dimensions. The project was entrusted to Arnolfo di Cambio. The first stone was put into place on the 3rd of May, 1294, celebration of the Holy Cross. Many great artists, such as Giotto, Taddeo and Agnolo Gaddi, Maso di Banco, Giovanni da Milano, Brunelleschi, Michelozzo worked here.

1423

A prestigious cultural centre

Following a flood and a fire which destroyed the Archive and the dormitory of the friary, a second stage of the building of the church begins. At the end of the fifteenth century it reaches its maximum extension and importance. Santa Croce becomes the headquarter of the Studio Generale of Franciscan friars and hosts Pope Eugene IV and many other important individuals, becoming one of the most prominent centre of European culture.

1443

The consecration of the church

On the 6th of January, at the presence of Pope Eugene IV, the new church of Santa Croce is consecrated. The finishing touches have to be yet done: the work will be carried on by artists such as Donatello, Michelozzo, Bernardo Rossellino, Desiderio da Settignano, Benedetto da Maiano, Andrea and Luca Della Robbia.

1500

Santa Croce as a Pantheon

In conjunction with the birth of the principality ruled by the Medici family the artistic trend adapts to the spirit of the Counter-Reformation. The inside of the church changes. Santa Croce which had already hosted in the 1400s the tombs of two people having a big influence on Florentine public life (Leonardo Bruni and Carlo Marsuppini), becomes the burial place of “Italian glories”, turning into the Florentine Pantheon, thanks to the presence of the funeral monuments of Michelangelo, Rossini, Machiavelli and many others.

1504

A church without the façade

Finishing touches continue with many difficulties until 1504 but then the funding comes to an end so the church remains without the decoration of the façade.

1512

Times of trouble for the Franciscans

A series of difficulties hit the Franciscan Community living in Santa Croce: a violent storm makes the bell tower fall down and the roof of the church is seriously damaged. In 1529 several incursions of soldiers invade the privacy inside the walls of the Church, provoking the loss of most of liturgical treasures. In 1557 a new flood of the Arno River destroys the Archive.

1565

The changes carried out by Vasari

During the Counter-Reformation the Granduke of Tuscany Cosimo I de’ Medici entrusted Giorgio Vasari to modify the architecture of the church. The ancient choir placed in the central nave of the church was demolished, many important fourteenth century works lost, new funeral monuments are built such as the one dedicated to Michelangelo Buonarroti.

1810

Napoleon’s suppressions

The suppressions of religious houses, decided by the government which Napoleon imposed in Tuscany, obliged the Franciscans to go away: they came back four years later. During this time the church was re-opened as a parish church dedicated to Saint Joseph in Santa Croce, with a diocesan priest.

1868

The subversive laws

Following the 'subversive laws' promulgated by the Italian Government, the Franciscans are obliged to leave Santa Croce again. Almost all their belongings are confiscated by the State, sold or lost, especially the codes, the manuscripts and the books in possession of Santa Croce Library.

1900

The rebirth of the Franciscan tradition

The 'subversive laws' become less rigid and the Franciscan friars regain the awareness of their religious and cultural tradition. In 1926 the Seventh Centenary of the death of Saint Francis was fully celebrated and in 1929 the school attended by those who wanted to enter the Franciscan group was re-opened. In 1944, in occasion of the Fifth Centenary of the death of Saint Bernardino of Siena, the new friary’s library was inaugurated.

1933

Santa Croce Church turned into a “basilica”

Pope Pius XI recognizes Santa Croce as a “basilica”.

1945

The “Studio Teologico per Laici”

On the 25th of January the friars founded the Studio Teologico per Laici, the first in Italy, to contribute to healing of the religious and moral wounds. The programmatic manifesto is by Giovanni Papini.

1946

The magazine “Città di Vita”

During the first months of the year the first issue of Città di Vita, magazine on religion, art and science, destined to be the “voice” of the Franciscan friars of Santa Croce and their culture.

The Franciscans today

Also today, after 800 of history, the Conventual Franciscans continue to share the Franciscan principles with people. The Studio Teologico per Laici is still located inside the friary and the magazine Città di Vita continues to be published.